Friday, August 21, 2020

Nsci 280 Week 4 Quiz

Week Four Quiz Chapter 9 Muscular System: Histology and Physiology ________________________________________ 1. Which of coming up next isn't an element of skeletal muscle? a. body development b. upkeep of stance c. breath d. narrowing of organs e. creation of warmth 2. Which of coming up next is valid? a. Skeletal muscle is fit for unconstrained compression. b. Smooth muscle is found in the dividers of empty organs. c. Heart muscle cells have numerous cores. d. Smooth muscle cells are long and tube shaped. e. There is a limited quantity of smooth muscle in the heart. 3.Which kind of muscle tissue has cells that branch? a. skeletal muscle b. smooth muscle c. cardiovascular muscle d. both skeletal and heart muscle e. both cardiovascular and smooth muscle 4. Hypertrophy of skeletal muscles from weight lifting is brought about by an expansion in the a. number of muscle filaments. b. size of muscle strands. c. number of striations. d. number of cores inside the muscle strands. e. number o f muscle cells. 5. Actin myofilaments a. take after packs of moment golf clubs. b. contain both myosin and tropomyosin. c. are held set up by the M line. d. contain strands of sinewy actin. . are the thickest proteins in muscle. 6. At the point when an activity potential reaches the presynaptic terminal, a. calcium particles diffuse into the presynaptic terminal through voltage-gated particle channels. b. acetylcholine moves into the presynaptic terminal. c. a neighborhood potential is created in the presynaptic terminal. d. ligand-gated particle diverts in the presynaptic terminal are opened. e. nothing else occurs. 7. In excitation-constriction coupling, a. calcium particles must tie with myosin to uncover dynamic destinations on actin. b. myosin makes a beeline for uncovered dynamic destinations on actin. . cross-spans structure between myosin heads and calcium particles. d. development of the troponin-tropomyosin complex makes actin myofilaments slide. e. ATP ties to actin myofi laments. 8. Which of the accompanying clarifies the expanded strain found in different wave summation? a. expanded engine unit enlistment b. expanded grouping of calcium particles around the myofibrils c. introduction of progressively dynamic locales on myosin myofilaments d. the breakdown of versatile components in the cell e. diminished boost recurrence 9. An isotonic withdrawal is portrayed as a. ction potential recurrence is sufficiently high that no unwinding of muscle strands happens. b. a muscle produces steady pressure during withdrawal. c. a muscle delivers an expanding strain during constriction. d. a muscle produces expanding strain as it abbreviates. e. a muscle produces pressure, yet the length of the muscle is expanding. 10. Which kind of breath happens in the mitochondria? a. anaerobic breath b. high-impact breath c. both anaerobic and high-impact breath Chapter 10 Muscular System: Gross Anatomy ________________________________________ 1.The sternocleidomastoid muscle reaches out from the mastoid procedure of the worldly issue that remains to be worked out sternum and average clavicle. At the point when both sternocleidomastoid muscles contract, the head is flexed. The finish of the muscle that interfaces with the sternum is the a. source. b. stomach. c. body. d. addition. e. fixator. 2. Which of the accompanying speaks to a class I switch framework? a. folding your legs b. hyperextension of the head c. remaining on your pussyfoots d. flexion of the elbow to lift the hand e. lifting weight with your arm 3. So as to settle the hyoid with the goal that the larynx can be raised in gulping, the _____ muscle bunch is utilized. . Pterygoid b. Infrahyoid c. Auricularis d. Suprahyoid e. hyoglossus 4. In the event that muscular strength are contracted while the vertebral segment is fixed this will help in a. spewing. b. labor. c. pee. d. crap. e. These decisions are right. 5. Which muscle will discourage the scapula or lift the ribs? a. levator scapulae b. serratus front c. pectoralis minor d. subclavius e. rhomboideus significant 6. Which of the accompanying muscles broadens the lower arm and has its addition on the ulna? a. Deltoid b. biceps brachii c. triceps brachii d. brachialis e. coracobrachialis . The gluteus maximus a. does the greater part of the work in â€Å"sit-ups. † b. represents a runner's position. c. permits one to sit leg over leg. d. is utilized in the automatic reflex. e. is a typical site for infusions. 8. Mark muscle â€Å"A† on the outline. a. orbicularis oculi b. temporalis c. trapezius d. sternocleidomastoid e. masseter 9. Mark muscle â€Å"A† on the outline. a. linea alba b. serratus front c. rectus abdominis d. outside sideways e. inside angled 10. What does â€Å"A† speak to? a. Coracobrachialis b. Deltoid c. pectoralis significant d. biceps brachii e. serratus front

Tuesday, July 14, 2020

How Long Does LSD (Acid) Stay in Your System

How Long Does LSD (Acid) Stay in Your System Addiction Drug Use Hallucinogens Print How Long Does LSD (Acid) Stay in Your System? LSD (Acid) in Your Blood, Urine, Hair By Buddy T facebook twitter Buddy T is an anonymous writer and founding member of the Online Al-Anon Outreach Committee with decades of experience writing about alcoholism. Learn about our editorial policy Buddy T Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on October 27, 2019 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on December 10, 2019 Verywell / Cindy Chung More in Addiction Drug Use Hallucinogens Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Ecstasy/MDMA Opioids Prescription Medications Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery In This Article Table of Contents Expand Effects Duration Detection Times Elimination Symptoms of Overdose Getting Help View All Back To Top LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), often called acid, is an illicit hallucinogenic drug that affects your perceptions for several hours and is detectable on drug screening tests. The drug can be detected by urine, blood, and hair tests, but does not show up on standard saliva tests.   LSD is classified as a Schedule I drug, meaning there is no currently accepted medical use. While LSD is not considered addictive, it can have intense effects and a potential for long-term physical and mental consequences. Tolerance to the drug builds quickly, which means that it takes increasingly higher doses to experience the same effects.   Verywell / Cindy Chung   What to Know About LSD Use How Long Does It Take to Feel Effects? LSD is usually swallowed as a capsule or liquid or absorbed in your mouth on a paper square. Users feel the effects of LSD 20 to 90 minutes after taking a dose, peaking at two to four hours, and diminishing over six to eight hours. In addition to sensory and mood effects, LSD use may also result in:?? Increased blood pressureIncreased heart rateElevated body temperatureDry mouthSweatingDizzinessSleepinessLoss of appetiteNauseaNumbnessWeaknessTremorsDelusionsHallucinations While on an LSD acid trip, people can have rapid emotional shifts, intensified and distorted sensory experiences, and changes in the perception of time.??  If a large dose of LSD is taken, it can produce some very unpleasant effects, sometimes called a bad trip. But some people can experience a bad trip no matter what dosage they consumed. LSD can also produce delusions and visual hallucinations, which can cause some people to panic. People can experience severe, terrifying thoughts and feelings of despair, fear of losing control, or fear of insanity and death. One long-term but the rare danger of LSD use is a condition called hallucinogen persisting perceptual disorder (HPPD) in which flashbacks persist and produce distress or impairment for the user in social or occupational functioning. What Happens When You Take LSD? How Long Does LSD Last? The half-life of LSD is around 5.1 hours. The effects can last up to 12 hours. Research has found that peak levels following a single-dose occur at a median of 1.5 hours after administration. After peaking, drug levels decline and reach half of the peak levels at approximately 3.6 hours after administration. The effects of the drug can last for up to 12 hours.   After LSD is orally ingested, the substance is quickly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and mucous membranes. The drug reaches the bloodstream and organs quickly, about 10 to 15 minutes after being ingested. The drug is primarily processed by the liver, where it is metabolized into a number of other inactive metabolites. Within 24 hours, almost all the drug has been metabolized and excreted. Approximately 13% of the drug is eliminated as a metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD). Research suggests that this byproduct is present in urine samples at concentration levels 16 to 43 times higher than LSD.   Researchers have attempted to develop different methods for detecting LSD, but the fact that the drug is unstable, broken down so quickly, and usually taken in relatively small amount presents challenges. Urine LSD can generally be detected in urine tests within eight hours of use and up to two to four days after use. Blood In one study, researchers found that LSD was detectable in blood samples taken 16 hours after participants had been given 200mcg of LSD. For those given a smaller dose of 100mcg, researchers were able to detect the substance in blood tests 8 hours after administration. Because levels decline steadily over time, the ability to detect the substance via even very sensitive blood tests dropped considerably after the 16-hour mark. Hair LSD,  like many other drugs, can be detected with a hair follicle drug test for up to 90 days. However, the use of hair testing is relatively rare. Because the drug is often taken at such low doses, it can be very difficult to detect in both research and forensic settings.  While hair tests may occasionally be used to check for LSD, they tend to be costly and their results may be unreliable. False Positive Testing There are some medications that may cause false-positive urine drug screens for LSD,?? including: Amitril (amitriptyline)Wellbutrin (bupropion)Buspar (buspirone)Cardizem (diltiazem)Prozac (fluoxetine)Trandate (labetalol)Ritalin (methylphenidate)Zoloft (sertraline)Risperdal (risperidone)Verelan (verapamil)Ambroxol??Fentanyl ?? As a result, positive LSD results are critically evaluated and initial positive results must be confirmed by a second independent testing technique. Always disclose any prescription or over-the-counter medications you are taking to the lab so clinicians can accurately interpret your drug screen results. Factors That Affect Detection Time There are a number of different factors that can affect how long LSD can be detected in the body. How soon LSD is eliminated depends on your metabolism and factors such as your weight, whether you are well-hydrated, and how healthy all of your bodily systems are.?? Keep in mind that if you have any other drugs in your system, they may be detectable on drug screens for longer than LSD and might influence how long LSD stays in your system.  You cannot be assured of the purity of an illegally manufactured drug and there may be other detectable substances in LSD doses. With LSD, timing is a key factor that influences whether the drug will be detectable by screening tests. After 24 hours, the drug will no longer be detectable in blood tests. After 72 hours, the drug is much more difficult to detect on urine tests. Some other factors that can influence detections times for LSD include: Age Younger people metabolize LSD faster than those over the age of 65. This is due to the fact that younger people typically have faster metabolisms and better liver function than older adults. Liver Function The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of LSD, so the drug may be detectable longer in those with reduced or impaired liver function. Metabolism As with other substances, overall metabolism plays a part in determining how quickly LSD is cleared from the body. People with faster metabolisms may process the drug much more quickly than those with slower metabolisms. How to Get LSD Out of Your System If you need to get LSD out of your system quickly, there are some steps that you can take to possibly speed up the process. Stop taking the drug. With LSD, timing is the critical factor. It is much harder to detect the drug after 24 hours from your last use on blood tests, so the sooner you stop using, the better.Exercise. Physical activity may accelerate metabolism.Stay hydrated. As with other drugs, hydration levels can have an impact on how quickly LSD is metabolized. Because LSD and its metabolites are excreted through urine, drinking plenty of fluids may help flush the drug out more quickly. Symptoms of Overdose The use of LSD at high doses and in combination with some other substances, including some antidepressants, can lead to a potentially dangerous phenomenon known as serotonin syndrome. This condition is caused when there is too much serotonin in the body, resulting in symptoms including confusion, muscle spasms, tremors, rapid heartbeat, and nausea. While there is no known lethal dose of LSD, taking too much can result in a terrifying experience that is commonly known as a bad trip. This experience is dangerous because it may result in hallucinations, self-harm, risky behaviors, or suicide. Potential symptoms that may occur after a bad trip can include: Panic  ParanoiaDelusionsHallucinationsSelf-injuryMood swingsSevere anxietyAccidentsSuicide If you suspect that someone is having an adverse reaction to LSD use, contact emergency services right away. Stay with the person and try to keep them calm until help arrives. What Happens During a Bad Trip? Getting Help LSD affects your mind and body significantly for at least 12 hours after a dose. You cannot be assured of the dosage and purity of an illegally manufactured drug, which can influence how long you feel the effects and how long it remains in your system.?? LSD can affect your ability to function normally at work, at home, and at school. If you feel like you need help, talk to your doctor about your options. Treatment approaches may include outpatient or inpatient rehab that focuses on individual counseling, group therapy, and family therapy. There are no FDA-approved drugs used in the treatment of LSD use. However, your doctor may prescribe medications to help treat symptoms of other psychiatric conditions including depression and anxiety. If you are concerned about your LSD use, you can also contact the SAMHSA National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357 or utilize their online treatment locator to find treatment resources near you. How to Find the Right Drug Treatment Program

Thursday, May 21, 2020

James Earl Jones a Voice in the Crowd - 2904 Words

James Earl Jones: A Voice in the Crowd March 19, 1996 People all around the world know the voice of James Earl Jones. From Star Wars fans listening to the voice of Darth Vader to news junkies who hear a voice that dramatically intones AThis is CNN@ just before all the cable network= s station breaks to children who hear the stately voice of the majestic Mufasa, the king of the jungle in Walt Disney Pictures= animated The Lion King - people know this deep harmonious voice belongs to this consummate actor of stage and screen. James Earl Jones was born January 17th, 1931, in Arkabutala Township, Mississippi. His natural parents, Ruth and Robert Earl, moved away to the Mississippi Delta when he was an infant. Raised for the rest of his†¦show more content†¦AThere was nothing to lose, I thought. I could use my GI Bill to go to acting school, and if it didn=t work out, I could step back into my Army career@(Jones 83). Jones lived by the premise AActing can never really be taught. It must be learned in a thousand ways, over and over again. Learning to act is ongoing, a lifelong process, and the responsibility rests with the actor@(89). Under this idea, Jones felt the only place to learn was in New York, and in 1955 he packed his bags. Once they were reunited in New York, Robert Earl let his son move in and they pursued separate careers. Recalling a childhood nickname, Jones assumed the stage name of Todd Jones and, at the age of 24, was accepted by the American Theatre Wing. One year later, after an argument with his father, James Earl Jones rented his own Acold-water-flat@ and went back to his full name. After receiving his diploma at the Theatre Wing in 1957, Jones auditioned for Tad Danielewski=s acting workshop, where he was accepted and set to work on scenes from three memorable plays: Othello, Of Mice and Men, and Miss Julie. In October, Jones received his first chance to be in a Broadway production as an understudy for Lloyd Richards who played the role of Perry Hall in The Egghead, starring Karl Malden and directed by Hume Croyn at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre. The understudy=s dream did not come true then , but three months later Jones received a speaking partShow MoreRelatedMartin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement Essay3359 Words   |  14 PagesJ. Edgar Hoover. Once he fell on the radar of the FBI King was subjected to constant harassment and blackmail. King spoke at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. to a crowd of over 40,000. A month and a year later the SCLC hosted multiple voter registration meetings, in an effort to give the African American people a voice in government. Through the SCLC King created Crusade for Citizenship to help with voter registration. 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When the movie was releasedRead MoreMedia Propaganda9887 Words   |  40 Pages[18]  These centers became the primary producers of both Reformation works by the Protestant Reformers and anti-Reformation works put forth by the Roman Catholics. 19th and 20th centuries: Trade’s  Laws of Imitation  (1890) and  Gustavo Le Bons  The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind  (1897) was two of the first codifications of propaganda techniques, which influenced many writers afterward, including  Sigmund Freud. Hitlers  Mein Kamp  is heavily influenced by Le Bons theories. Journalist  Walter LippmannRead MoreImpooving Employee Performance72019 Words   |  289 Pageshas shared the experiences of top-ï ¬â€šight organizations and made available their forms and procedures so that every reader can immediately beneï ¬ t from the lessons they have learned. In his original foreword to the ï ¬ rst edition of this valuable book, James L. Hayes, former CEO of the American Management Association, wrote, ‘‘There are some ideas in management whose time comes and goes and comes again, depending on circumstances of economy or fashion. There are other ideas whose time is ever present andRead MoreMonsanto: Better Living Through Genetic E ngineering96204 Words   |  385 Pagescheaper and have more practical applications Database technology allows organisation of complex data and distribution of information Telecommunications technology and networks increasingly provide fast transmission of all sources of data, including voice, written communications and video information Computerised design and manufacturing technologies continue to facilitate quality and ï ¬â€šexibility Regional changes in population due to migration Changing ethnic composition of the population Ageing of the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of The Jesus I Never Knew By Philip Yancey

Yancey â€Å"The Jesus I Never Knew† by Philip Yancey is a book that breaks down Jesus’s life. This book opens up eyes that were once closed to certain situations. This book makes the bible relatable and actually makes the reader to think about the time when Jesus was born. Instead of reading the bible word for word, this book allows you to think about what actually happed during the time period. â€Å"The Jesus I Never Knew† puts the bible in modern time and put the bible in our eyes. We all know how the first Christmas actually happened, but I never understood the background story of it. Jesus was a person that as a human begins to grow into adulthood, their knowledge and understanding of Jesus changed. Paul Yancey wrote, â€Å"I first got acquainted†¦show more content†¦The people were foretold of Jesus’s coming, but they were not expecting him to come as a common person. They were expecting him to come in riches and glory, but he came down in the humblest way. Our whole existence was based on a young teenage girl named Mary. She was foretold by an angel of her being pregnant with the holy son. If it was up to our generation to give birth to a being that would save the whole world, they might dismiss the idea and try to abort the child. Our generation would be in shambles. According to Yancey, â€Å"The virgin Mary, though, whose parenthood was unplanned, had a different response. She heard the angel out, pondered the repercussions, and replied, â€Å"I am the Lord’s servant. May it be to me as you have said† (Yancey, 32). Mary was ready for the spirit of the Holy Ghost to impregnate her with the holy child. Even though she was a teenager, she did not question the what the angel had told her. Mary was engaged to be married to Joseph and instead of Joseph making a big scene about he baby (Jesus) not being his, he hid her away from the shame that his soon to be wife would endure. Jesus’s coming was a lready foretold in the Old Testament and he hardly seemed like a threat to Caesar Augustus, because of the great kind Augustus was. Jesus’s birth was a small incident while Augustus ruled and little attention was paid to him, but it all changedShow MoreRelatedLeadership Lessons of Jesus Christ4625 Words   |  19 PagesMeholick Research Paper The Leadership Lessons of Jesus Christ When we talk about Jesus as a leader, we may imply two different forms: Jesus as the only Son of God, God of the universe, or the risen Christ as being one with God; or Jesus as the 1st century flesh and blood human being, the historical figure. Since the purpose of studying leadership is to improve ones own leadership skills, it makes sense to analyze Jesus applicable traits, actions, and accomplishments as a goodRead More The Leadership Lessons of Jesus Christ Essay4531 Words   |  19 PagesThe Leadership Lessons of Jesus Christ When we talk about Jesus as a leader, we may imply two different forms: Jesus as the only Son of God, God of the universe, or the risen Christ as being one with God; or Jesus as the 1 st century flesh and blood human being, the historical figure. Since the purpose of studying leadership is to improve ones own leadership skills, it makes sense to analyze Jesus applicable traits, actions, and accomplishments as a good leader—in his historical role—so hisRead MorePoverty Term Paper4739 Words   |  19 PagesOutline I. Introduction A. Significance of the Study B. What is Poverty? C. History of Poverty in the Philippines D. Demographics of Poverty II. Entrenched factors associated with poverty A. Colonial Histories B. Centralization of Power C. Corruption D. Warfare E. Environmental degradation F. Social Inequality III. Lethal and Long-term Effect of Poverty

The Role and Influence of Mass Media Free Essays

Topic 5: The role and influence of mass media Since the development of technology, mass media becomes an important part of modern society. It influences all areas; therefore, it is raising a question among people about what are the role and influence of mass media. The term mass media refers to the channels of communication (media) that exist to reach a large public audience (the mass of the population). We will write a custom essay sample on The Role and Influence of Mass Media or any similar topic only for you Order Now Mass media includes newspapers, magazines, television, radio, and more recently, the Internet (Kristin Susan, 2002). Mass media is an efficient supporter in education, policy, entertainment, finance, and all other fields. One function of mass media is education. Mass media supplies an enormous source of documentaries on a wide range of topics such as animals, behavior, geography, history, or art (Kristin Susan, 2002). The information is extremely helpful with students at any levels. Additionally, mass media contains many visual documentaries, which make learners easier to see and use theories rather than only reading text. Secondly, there are many educational children’s programs like teaching children to count or recognize words, or introducing them to different societies and cultures (Kristin Susan, 2002). There are also many programs which help parent to solve their kids’ problems. Fox example, the book â€Å"Good parent bad parenting†, which is published by Lulu. com publisher on February 2 in 2004, is one effective product of mass media which help parents to educate their children. The mass media is also a useful aid of policy. Almost all of politicians use the mass media to promote their positive images or political opinions. There is an example of using the mass media to advertise during his campaign of the United State President Barack Obama: The GOP group announced that they were going on air with a $25 million of advertising to buy in most of the major battleground states to counter a pro-Obama advertising campaign of the same amounts (â€Å"Obama campaign,† 2012). Moreover, some ministries use the mass media to introduce new policy and to take feedback from the populace. For instance, the Vietnamese Ministry of Transport presented a new policy about taking fare of transport on Monday, January 1st 2012 (â€Å"The Ministry of transportation,† 2012). After a few days, they received many opinions among the public, which included positive and negative feedback so that they could correct this policy. Another important function of the mass media is entertainment. Since the development of the mass media, the entertainment industry has been more and more successful to approach the public. There are many entertainment programs available on TV, radio, or the Internet every day. The variety of entertainment programs make them suitable for all types of viewers. On TV nowadays, there are some special channels for people interested in travelling, discovering, cooking, shopping, etc. For example, cable TV has nearly one hundred of channels of all fields, which are very useful. One type of the mass media, advertising, brings benefits to both entertainment industry and economy. All producers use advertisements to introduce their products to public with an aim to sell goods. However, with the dense appearance of advertisements, advertising can be seen as one type of entertainment. Besides the positive influence, there is so much negative influence of the mass media. Firstly, the mass media contains so much unsuitable content that affect badly everyone, especially the children. Some violent programs on TV or on the Internet make children aggressive and make them use violence to solve their problems exactly like what they have seen on the mass media. A recent review of sixty-seven studies that investigated the influence of TV violence on aggression in children found that three-quarters of the studies claimed to find some association(Kristin Susan, 2002). One noticeable example about this issue is about the juvenile criminal named Le Van Luyen. He intended to kill four people in a family to rob their gold (â€Å"Le Van Luyen kill mercilessly,† 2011). His bloody crime was quite a disaster. However, it also has been available in mass media for a long time. Therefore, his images and crime were available on all types of mass media. This led to another terrible crime of a younger criminal named Dao Van Tai. He killed two people to rob property. When being asked by police, he admitted committing this crime by copying the crime of Le Van Luyen (â€Å"The second frightened murder,† n. d). Secondly, mass media sometimes invades people’s privacy. Celebrities and politicians are usually the victims because they receive more concern from society than others. The mass media industry sometimes uses private details to make profits rather than showing the full view of somebody’s live to the public; hence, mass media public their scandals or bad behaviour. These invasions are bad for their profession or even destroy their reputation. Mass media even is an origin of spreading out secret information of the government. Once the secret information is leaked out, it will be available all over the world rapidly through mass media. For example, the latest intelligence of the United States, which is flooded in all types of the mass media, is the secret information of the war in Afghanistan. The information really makes the United States nervous. Washington fears it may have lost even more highly sensitive material including an archive of tens of thousands of cable messages sent by US embassies around the world, reflecting arms deals, trade talks, secret meetings and uncensored opinion of other governments (â€Å"Afghanistan war log,† n. d). The mass media may contain misleading information, which has negative impact on the public. Since some information in the mass media is misreporting, misquoting, rumor, or exaggeration, people do not know which one is reliable; therefore, they waste time reading wrong information. That is so confusing! Mass media plays an important role in modern society. It can have positive influence on one side and negative impact on the other side. The public can not refuse its advantages by only seeing the disadvantages of the mass media. However, people must have an overlook to the mass media so that they can take advantages of mass media as much as they can! END WORDS COUNT: 994 REFERENCE LIST: 1. Book: Kristine, B. Susan, H. (2002), Academic encounters- Life in the society, New York, Cambridge. 2. Web document: Afghanistan war logs story behind biggest leak in intelligence history (n. d). Retrieved July 5, 2010, from http://www. guardian. co. uk The second frightened murder in Vinh Phuc (n. d). Retrieved April 19, 2012, from http://www. kenh14. vn Obama campaign: Crossroads ad campaign is â€Å"dishonest† (2012), from http://www. pilitico. com The Ministry of transportation explain the reasons for fare of transport (2012). Retrieved November 1, 2012, from http://www. vneconomy Le Van Luyen killed mercilessly people (n. d). Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www. vnexpress. net How to cite The Role and Influence of Mass Media, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Essays - Abdominal Pain, RTT, Syndromes

Irritable Bowel Syndrome IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME Suffering in Silence Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is a common disorder of the intestines that affects nearly one out of five people in the United States. According to the book, Irritable Bowel Syndrome & the Mind-Body-Brain-Gut Connection by William B. Salt II, IBS is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder. The symptoms include constipation, diarrhea or alternating bouts of both, bloating, abdominal pain and many other problems. Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome usually begin during adolescence or early adulthood. Altered bowel movements occur over periods of days to weeks. Occasionally, symptoms may be continuous. In a given individual, both constipation and diarrhea can occur, or either can be the recurring symptom. The course of the disease varies from patient to patient, but individually, it can follow a consistent pattern. The diarrhea of irritable bowel syndrome is usually of small volume, but frequent. Episodes commonly occur during periods of stress. The initial morning movement may be normal, but followed by successively loose bowel movements throughout the rest of the day. Bowel movements may be associated with extreme urgency. The diarrhea rarely awakens patients from sleep and there is usually no associated fever or rectal bleeding. The abdominal pain of irritable bowel syndrome can vary in severity from mild to severe. It is usually felt in the lower abdomen, especially on the left side. The pain may be dull, sharp, crampy or continuous. It is commonly relieved by the passage of gas or by defecation *1*. Each year, 2.6 million people seek treatment for symptoms related to functional gastrointestinal disorders, and visits to physicians total 3.5 million (Salt xiv). The average age of onset of IBS is between 20 and 29 years of age, and IBS is prevalent throughout the world including China, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Scandinavia (Salt xiv, xv). The public is made aware of cases of HIV, heart disease, various forms of cancer, etc., on a daily basis, yet IBS is relatively unheard of. Because of this, millions of people who suffer from IBS feel there is a stigma attached to their disease and they must suffer in silence. IBS is not a rare disease. In fact, it is the second leading cause of absenteeism in the workplace, coming in behind the common cold *2*. Unlike the common cold, however, there is no over-the-counter drug that can be picked up at the local drug store at the first sign of symptoms. Furthermore, there are few prescription drugs that have been used to treat IBS with positive results. The first prescription drug specifically developed for diarrhea-predominant IBS, Lotronex, was released to the market in March of 2000. Glaxo Wellcome, maker of Lotronex, says the precise mechanism of action of the drug is not fully understood. However, the working hypothesis is that the experimental drug blocks the action of the neurotransmitter serotonin and 5-HT3 receptor sites in the gastrointestinal track. The thinking is that serotonin and 5-HT3 receptors play a role in increasing the sensations of pain and affecting bowel function in IBS patients. In addition, nerves that control the muscles in the gut may overreact to stimuli such as gas and the passage of food after a meal. This may cause painful spasms and contractions and speed up or slow the passage of stool through the colon, resulting in diarrhea or constipation *3*. Lotronex has only been shown to work in women, and there is presently no medication available for men suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Lotronex works by blocking the level of serotonin in the intestinal system in order to reduce the cramping abdominal pain and discomfort, urgency and diarrhea. The first step in determining if the bowel problems in question are caused by IBS is to visit a physician for a check up. Chances are, he will refer the patient to a gastrointerologist, who will then order outpatient testing to be done at a hospital. This battery of tests can include an upper and lower GI, a barium enema/X-ray, an EGD?which consists of sticking a scope down the throat to look into the stomach, an ultrasound, and any other deemed necessary by the specialist. IBS will be diagnosed after it is determined that the patient's organs are